Understanding Employment Norms in Zimbabwe: A Comprehensive Guide
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Hiring in Zimbabwe? Read on to find out the employment norms (like taxes, payroll and benefits) and EOR (Employer on Record) norms in Zimbabwe.

Employment norms in Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe is a country located in southern Africa, known for its diverse culture, vibrant music, and rich history. Like many other countries in the region, Zimbabwe has a complex employment landscape, with a variety of laws and regulations that govern the relationship between employers and employees. Employment norms in Zimbabwe have been shaped by a range of factors, including the country's colonial past, its transition to independence, and its ongoing efforts to promote economic development and social equity

General Information:

  • The Zimbabwean currency is the Zimbabwean dollar (ZWL).
  • Harare is the capital of Zimbabwe.
  • English, Shona, and Ndebele are the official languages of Zimbabwe. Legal documents can be drafted in any of these to be considered legally valid.
  • As of 2021, the GDP of Zimbabwe was reported to be USD 28.37 billion.
Zimbabwean labor laws regulate working hours, minimum wage, leave entitlements, health and safety standards, and workers' rights.
Zimbabwe map

Table of Contents

  • Agreements
  • Onboarding Process
  • Visa
  • Minimum Wage
  • Payroll Cycle
  • Annual Bonus
  • Health Benefits
  • Working hours and overtime
  • Leaves
  • Social Security
  • Taxes for Employers
  • Taxes for Employees
  • Probation
  • Termination
  • Severance Pay
  • Employees or Contractors
  • Final Words


Here are some key points to keep in mind regarding agreements in Zimbabwe:
  • The language of the agreement can be in any of the official languages of Zimbabwe, but it's recommended to use English.
  • Agreements must comply with the country's labor laws, including minimum wage rates, working hours, and leave entitlements.
  • Agreements can be negotiated between individual employers and employees, or they can be collective agreements negotiated between employers and labor unions.
  • Collective agreements are usually for a fixed term, and they must be registered with the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare.
  • Agreements can cover various aspects of employment, such as remuneration, benefits, job responsibilities, performance evaluation, and termination of employment.
Onboarding Process

Onboarding Process

In Zimbabwe, there are no specific laws that govern the employee onboarding process. However, best practices include:
  • Provide a formal job offer that outlines the terms and conditions of employment.
  • Obtain the employee's personal information, including identification documents, qualifications, and references.
  • Provide orientation and training to the employee regarding the company's policies, procedures, and expectations.
  • Submit mandatory documents such as work permits and tax clearance certificates.
  • Obtain the employee's bank account details to facilitate salary payments.
  • Provide necessary tools and equipment for the employee to perform their job duties.


Zimbabwe has several types of work permits and visas that individuals can apply for depending on the purpose of their visit.
  • Work Permit: This is required for individuals who plan to work and live in Zimbabwe for an extended period.
  • Business Visa: This is for individuals who intend to conduct business activities in Zimbabwe but are not planning to work and live in the country.
  • Temporary Employment Permit: This is for individuals who plan to work in Zimbabwe for a short duration, usually up to six months.
  • Study Permit: This is for individuals who plan to study in Zimbabwe.

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Minimum Wage

Minimum Wage

There are no minimum wage requirements mandated by law in Zimbabwe.
Payroll Cycle

Payroll Cycle

The payroll cycle in Zimbabwe is typically monthly.
Annual Bonus

Annual Bonus

In Zimbabwe, there is no legal provision for employers to provide an annual bonus to employees..
Health Benefits

Health Benefits

There is no legal requirement for employers to provide health benefits to employees in Zimbabwe. However, some employers may choose to provide these benefits as part of their remuneration package like:
  • Medical aid cover for employees and their dependents
  • Access to on-site medical facilities or discounts with preferred healthcare providers
  • Health and wellness programs, such as gym memberships, counseling services, or nutrition consultations
Working hours and overtime

Working hours and overtime

  • Work-hours: The standard workweek is 45 hours, with a maximum of 9 hours per day
  • Break: Employers must provide a minimum of a one-hour break after every five hours of work.
  • Overtime: Paying for overtime is mandatory in Zimbabwe, but the amount is not defined and is decided by mutual agreement.


Sick leaves

  • Employees are entitled to a minimum of 90 days of paid sick leave in a 36-month cycle paid by the employer.

Parental leaves

  • Female employees are entitled to 98 days of maternity leave, with the first six weeks to be taken before the expected delivery date. This leave is paid by the employer.
  • Male employees are entitled to 12 days of unpaid paternity leave.

Annual leaves

  • Employees who have completed at least 12 months of continuous service are entitled to paid annual leave.
  • The minimum entitlement is 30 working days per year.

Public Holidays (for the Calendar year 2023)

  • New Year: 1 Jan
  • New Year observed: 2 Jan
  • Robert Gabriel Mugabe National Youth Day: 21 Feb
  • Good Friday: 7 Apr
  • Easter Saturday: 8 Apr
  • Easter Sunday: 9 Apr
  • Easter Monday: 10 Apr
  • Independence Day: 18 Apr
  • Workers' Day: 1 May
  • Africa Day: 25 May
  • Father's Day: 18 Jun
  • Heroes' Day: 14 Aug25
  • Defense Forces Day: 15 Aug
  • Unity Day: 22 Dec
  • Christmas Day: 25 Dec
  • Boxing Day: 26 Dec

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Social Security

Social Security

The National Social Security Authority (NSSA) manages social security in Zimbabwe. Both employer and employee contribution towards this scheme is 4.5% each.
Taxes for Employers

Taxes for Employers

Employers in Zimbabwe are required to pay various taxes, including:
  • National Social Security Authority (NSSA): 4.5%
  • Manpower Training Levy: 1%
  • Value Added Tax (VAT): 14.5%.

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Taxes for Employees

Taxes for Employees

Employees are required to pay various taxes in Zimbabwe, including:
  • Employees earning in Zimbabwean dollars have to pay the income tax based on the following tax slab:
    • 0 to 300,000 ZWL - 0%.
    • 300,001 to 720,000 ZWL - 20%
    • 720,001 to 1,440,000 ZWL - 25% on ZWL above 720,000 + 84,000 ZWL.
    • 1,440,001 to 2,880,000 ZWL - 30% on ZWL above 1,440,001 + 264,000 ZWL.
    • 2,880,001 to 6,000,000 ZWL - 35% on ZWL above 2,880,000 + 696,000 ZWL.
    • 6,000,001 ZWL and above - 40% + 1,788,000 ZWL.
  • National Social Security Authority (NSSA): Employees are required to contribute 4.5% of their salary towards NSSA.


The probationary period in Zimbabwe is of one month.

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In Zimbabwe, an employer can terminate an employment contract for various reasons, including:
  • Misconduct or poor performance
  • Redundancy or restructuring
  • Health reasons or disability
  • Gross insubordination or wilful disobedience
  • Absence without leave or unauthorized absence
  • Breach of contract
  • Expiry of a fixed-term contract
Severance Pay

Severance Pay

Employees who have been employed for more than six months are entitled to severance pay if their employment is terminated by the employer for reasons other than gross misconduct or serious incompetence in Zimbabwe. It is calculated as 3 months of pay for every year of service.
Employees or Contractors

Employees or Contractors

  • The distinction between employees and contractors is important, as employees are entitled to certain employment benefits and protections under the law that contractors are not.
  • If an employer misclassifies an employee as a contractor, they may be required to pay back wages and benefits owed to the employee, as well as penalties for non-compliance with employment laws. On the other hand, if an employer misclassifies a contractor as an employee, they may be required to pay employment taxes and provide benefits retroactively.
Final Words

Final Words

Zimbabwe has various employment norms and regulations in place to protect the rights of employees and ensure fair working conditions. From minimum wage requirements to health benefits, the country's employment laws seek to provide workers with necessary protections and benefits. Zimbabwe offers employment opportunities for both locals and foreign workers, with a growing economy and a range of industries to choose from.

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